Knee Injury and Pain in Yoga
By Niki Vetten
Knee injury in yoga usually involves tearing the Meniscus, a double ring of cartilage between the Femur (thighbone) and the Tibia (lower leg bone) – either through carelessness – by practicing asanas with the feet and the knees pointing in different directions, or in Padmasana. It is also possible to overstretch the supporting ligaments at the sides of the knees. People also experience pain behind the knee, on the outer side of the knee, on the inner side below the knee or around the Patella (kneecap) itself.
Knee pain should never be ignored, in the hope that it will go away – the causes need to be investigated and dealt with before attempting any asanas that are painful. It is also highly risky to practice when there is swelling around the knees because swelling inhibits stabilisation by the muscles attached to the Patella and can lead to injury. Students and teachers should take care to avoid this kind of injury because the majority of Meniscus tears require surgery and rarely heal by themselves because the blood supply to cartilage is very limited. Knee problems are complex because some kinds of knee pain comes from an actual injury to knee structures like the meniscus or ligaments, but most other knee pain is caused by instability of the hips, which can cause structural damage in the knee.
The Gluteus Medius is the main stabiliser of the pelvis and if it is weak the pelvis tilts to the side when standing on one leg, while the knee tends to sway inwards when it is bent, putting pressure on knee structures. Hip muscle imbalances also creates rotational stress which can cause injury in Padmasana. This is explained in more detail in Knees and Padmasana
The relationship between the hips and the knees is explained in more detail in How Hip Problems Cause Knee Pain and for more information on the Gluteus Medius, please read Lateral Pelvic Tilt in Yoga Practice
Another source of knee pain are the Quadricep muscles, this pain occurs mostly around the kneecap and in asanas like Virasana and is detailed in Pain at the Kneecap
Reading sources: Ellenbecker, De Carlo, DeRosa, 2009, Effective Functional Progressions in Sport Rehabilitation Sports Injury Bulletin: Meniscal Tears Sports Injury Bulletin: Knee Rehabilitation Sports Injury Bulletin: Popliteus
Author: Niki Vetten
Visit Niki’s Website: Yoga Anatomy for the Perplexed
Here are some of the other articles posted here by Nikki Vetten:
- Previous Hip Injury and Yoga Practice March 10, 2013 By Niki Vetten Many people turn to yoga as a way of healing hip injuries that they acquired elsewhere. Some people find that their injuries improve with mild stretching and strengthening, but others find that their symptoms get much worse. Hip injuries that are caused by traumatic events like car accidents or bad falls have a profound ...
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- Wrist Pain from Vinyasa Yoga March 10, 2013 By Niki Vetten Vinyasa, arm balances and handstands often leave yoga practitioners complaining of wrist pain, especially at the Ulnar side of the hand, that is, the base of the palm furthest from the thumb. To combat this, the focus is on various hand positions, pushing down with the base of the thumb, rising up onto ...
- Lower Back Pain and Alignment March 11, 2013 By Niki Vetten Another cause of lower back pain is found in the alignment of the left and right sides of the body, some bodies are structurally asymmetrical: one leg is shorter than the other, or the pelvic halves are different sizes, people can be born that way, or their structure can be altered by bone ...
- Knees and Padmasana March 9, 2013 By Niki Vetten Padmasana can cause various problems for yoga practitioners. Meniscus tears usually occur as a result of falls and accidents but in yoga they can be caused by incorrect functioning of the Popliteus and Semimembranosus (inner hamstring). Both of these muscles control rotational forces in the leg. The Popliteus muscle retracts the lateral meniscus, ...